Mechanical-Resonance-Enhanced Thin-Film Magnetoelectric Heterostructures for Magnetometers, Mechanical Antennas, Tunable RF Inductors, and Filters

The strong strain-mediated magnetoelectric (ME) coupling found in thin-film ME heterostructures has attracted an ever-increasing interest and enables realization of a great number of integrated multiferroic devices, such as magnetometers, mechanical antennas, RF tunable inductors and filters. This paper first reviews the thin-film characterization techniques for both piezoelectric and magnetostrictive thin films, which are crucial in determining the strength of the ME coupling. After that, the most recent progress on various integrated multiferroic devices based on thin-film ME heterostructures are presented. In particular, rapid development of thin-film ME magnetometers has been seen over the past few years. These ultra-sensitive magnetometers exhibit extremely low limit of detection ($\mathrm{sub-pT/Hz}^{1/2}$) for low-frequency AC magnetic fields, making them potential candidates for applications of medical diagnostics. Other devices reviewed in this paper include acoustically actuated nanomechanical ME antennas with miniaturized size by 1–2 orders compared to the conventional antenna; integrated RF tunable inductors with a wide operation frequency range; integrated RF tunable bandpass filter with dual H- and E-field tunability. All these integrated multiferroic devices are compact, lightweight, power-efficient, and potentially integrable with current complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology, showing great promise for applications in future biomedical, wireless communication, and reconfigurable electronic systems.

Antiferromagnetic THz-frequency Josephson-like Oscillator Driven by Spin Current

The development of compact and tunable room temperature sources of coherent THz-frequency signals would open a way for numerous new applications. The existing approaches to THz-frequency generation based on superconductor Josephson junctions (JJ), free electron lasers, and quantum cascades require cryogenic temperatures or/and complex setups, preventing the miniaturization and wide use of these devices. We demonstrate theoretically that a bi-layer of a heavy metal (Pt) and a bi-axial antiferromagnetic (AFM) dielectric (NiO) can be a source of a coherent THz signal. A spin-current flowing from a DC-current-driven Pt layer and polarized along the hard AFM anisotropy axis excites a non-uniform in time precession of magnetizations sublattices in the AFM, due to the presence of a weak easy-plane AFM anisotropy. The frequency of the AFM oscillations varies in the range of 0.1–2.0 THz with the driving current in the Pt layer from $10^8 \text{A}/\text{cm}^2$ to $10^9 \text{A}/\text{cm}^2$. The THz-frequency signal from the AFM with the amplitude exceeding $1 \text{V}/\text{cm}$ is picked up by the inverse spin-Hall effect in Pt. The operation of a room-temperature AFM THz-frequency oscillator is similar to that of a cryogenic JJ oscillator, with the energy of the easy-plane magnetic anisotropy playing the role of the Josephson energy.

Theoretical formalism for collective spin-wave edge excitations in arrays of dipolarly interacting magnetic nanodots

A general theory of collective spin-wave edge modes in semi-infinite and finite periodic arrays of magnetic nanodots having uniform dynamic magnetization (macrospin approximation) is developed. The theory is formulated using a formalism of multivectors of magnetization dynamics, which allows one to study edge modes in arrays having arbitrarily complex primitive cells and lattice structure. The developed formalism can describe spin-wave edge modes localized both at the physical edges of the array and at the internal “domain walls” separating the array regions existing in different static magnetization states. Using a perturbation theory, in the framework of the developed formalism, it is possible to calculate damping of the edge modes and to describe their excitation by external variable magnetic fields. The theory is illustrated on the following practically important examples: (i) calculation of the FMR absorption in a finite nanodot array having the shape of a right triangle; (ii) calculation of the spectra of nonreciprocal spin-wave edge modes, including the modes at the physical edges of an array and modes at the domain walls inside the array; and (iii) study of the influence of the domain wall modes on the FMR spectrum of an array existing in a nonideal chessboard antiferromagnetic ground state.

Interaction of Microwave Photons with Nanostructured Magnetic Metasurfaces

We develop a theoretical formalism for the description of the interaction of microwave photons with a thin (compared to the photon wavelength) magnetic metasurface comprised of dipolarly interacting nanoscale magnetic elements. We derive a scattering matrix describing the processes of photon transmission and reflection at the metasurface boundary. As an example of the use of the developed formalism, we demonstrate that the introduction of a magnetic metasurface inside a microstrip electromagnetic waveguide quantitatively changes the dispersion relation of the fundamental waveguide mode, opening a nonpropagation frequency band gap in the waveguide spectrum. The frequency position and the width of the band gap are dependent on the waveguide thickness and can be controlled dynamically by switching the magnetic ground state of the metasurface. For sufficiently thin waveguides, the position of the band gap is shifted from the resonance absorption frequency of the metasurface. In such a case, the magnetic metasurface inside a waveguide works as an efficient reflector, as the energy absorption in the metasurface is small, and most of the electromagnetic energy inside the nonpropagation band gap is reflected.